Carcinogenesis and Neoplasia ... a Companion Site.


A Mitogen, or somatomedin, is any molecules that stimulates a cell to divide. Most mitogens are proteins, and they stimulate signal transduction pathways that utilize mitogen activated protein kinases. Mitogens include cytokines, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters, cellular stress proteins, and cell adhesion ligands. For example, antigen stimulation of cell adhesion immunoglobulins triggers mitosis in B cells.

Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAP kinases) act as switch kinases that transmits information of increased intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation to that of serine/threonine phosporylation. MAPK-activated protein kinases (or MKs; formerly MAPKAP kinases) respond to mitogenic and stress stimuli through proline-directed phosphorylation and activation of the kinase domain by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and p38 MAPKs.(ffta)

The signaling cascade is:
mitogen → MAPKK kinase (MAPKKK) → MAPK kinase (MAPKK)MAP kinase (MAPK) → signaling

Among the substrates of ERK are the members of the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) family of serine/threonine kinases (10). RSK plays an active role in nuclear signaling by phosphorylating the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CRE-binding protein, CREB) (33), c-Fos (5), and IB (27). Phosphorylation of Bad (3, 29) and C/EBPß (4) by RSK can protect cells from apoptosis. RSK has also been implicated in cell cycle regulation. RSK phosphorylates histone H3 (25), suggesting that RSK may regulate chromatin remodeling.[s-fft]

MAP kinases are also called ERKs for extracellular-signal regulated kinases, microtubule associated protein-2 kinase (MAP-2 kinase), myelin basic protein kinase (MBP kinase), ribosomal S6 protein kinase (RSK-kinase) and EGF receptor threonine kinase (ERT kinase). Maximal MAP kinase activity requires phosphorylation of both tyrosine and threonine residues. Activators of the extracellular-signal regulated kinase family (ERKs) of MAPKs include the mitogens, Ras [fft], polypeptide growth factors PDGF, CSF-1, IGF-1, EGF insulin, PMA.


Labels: , , , , , ,

. . . proliferating since 10/06/06